Urinary Issues


Incontinence is the inability to control urine flow. Urinary control relies on the finely coordinated activities of the smooth muscle tissue of the urethra and bladder, skeletal muscle, voluntary inhibition, and the autonomic nervous system. Urinary incontinence can result from anatomic, physiologic, or pathologic (disease) factors.

Acute and temporary incontinence are commonly caused by the following:

  • Childbirth
  • Limited mobility
  • Medication side effect
  • Urinary tract infection

Overactive Bladder

In people with an overactive bladder (OAB), the layered, smooth muscle that surrounds the bladder (detrusor muscle) contracts spastically, sometimes without a known cause, which results in sustained, high bladder pressure and the urgent need to urinate (called urgency). People with OAB often experience urgency at inconvenient and unpredictable times and sometimes lose control before reaching a toilet.


  • Sudden strong urges to urinate
  • Urinate more than eight times in a 24-hour period
  • Get up two or more times a night to go to the bathroom
  • Uncontrollable urges to urinate that sometimes result in wetting accidents

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary tract infections (UTI) occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and urethra and multiply. These infections typically develop in the lower urinary tract before progressing to the upper urinary tract if they remain untreated.

Symptoms of a urinary tract infection (UTI)

  • Pain or burning when you urinate.
  • An urge to urinate frequently but usually passing only small amounts of urine.
  • Dribbling (inability to control urine release).
  • Pain or a feeling of heaviness in your lower abdomen.
  • Reddish or pinkish urine.
  • Foul-smelling urine.
  • Cloudy urine.
  • Pain in your back just below the rib cage, on one side of your body (flank pain).
  • Fever and chills.
  • Nausea and vomiting

Voiding Dysfunction

It is estimated that as many as 25 million Americans suffer from bladder control problems. Voiding dysfunction is a condition in which the bladder does not function properly and does not empty completely.

Interstitial Cystitis

Interstitial cystitis is a chronic bladder condition caused by damage to the protective lining of the bladder. Interstitial cystitis causes chronic pain and discomfort. Inflammation associated with IC causes the lining to scar and the bladder to stiffen, which affects the way the bladder expands.

Patients may experience symptoms of:

  • Urinary frequency
  • Urinary urgency
  • Pain in the areas between the navel and the inside of the thighs
  • Pain may be occasional or constant

Neurogenic Bladder

Damage to the nervous system may sometimes cause patients to lose normal bladder function, a condition known as neurogenic bladder.

Patients suffering from this condition may experience:

  • Underactive bladder
  • Unable to contract or empty completely
  • Overactive bladder that contracts too quickly and frequently


Hematuria is a condition in which blood appears in a patient’s urine. Hematuria can originate from any location along the urinary tract.


  • Blood clots
  • Red, pink, orange, or brown color in urine