Urologic Oncology

Adrenal Cancer

Adrenal cancer is a rare disease that originates in the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and consist of two parts that function separately: the outer layer (cortex) and the inner area (medulla).

How is adrenal cancer found? It is hard to find adrenal cancer early. In most cases the tumor has grown quite large before it is found. In adults, these tumors may be found early by accident, for example when a CT scan is done for some other health problem. The symptoms of adrenal cancer can be caused by either the hormones they make or because the tumor has grown large and is pressing on nearby organs. If you or your child has any of the symptoms below, see a doctor right away. Signs and symptoms of adrenal cancer in about half of people with adrenal cortex cancer, symptoms are caused by the hormones made by the tumor. In the other half, symptoms occur because the tumor has grown so large that it presses on nearby organs. Symptoms caused by the hormones androgen or estrogen. Symptoms are easier to notice if the tumor is making the hormone that is not usually there.

A variety of symptoms can occur with adrenal cancer including:

  • Abdominal pain, cramping or fullness
  • Changes in sexual desire and function
  • Easy bleeding or bruising
  • Excess hair growth
  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Frequent urination
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Mood changes
  • Voice deepening
  • Weakness (loss of strength)
  • Weight gain, especially in the abdomen, chest and face

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer accounts for approximately 90% of cancers of the urinary collecting system (renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra). The bladder is an organ that stores and discharges urine. Bladder cancer usually originates in the bladder lining, which consists of a mucous layer of surface cells that expand and deflate (transitional epithelial cells), smooth muscle, and a fibrous layer. Tumors are categorized as low-stage (superficial) or high-stage (muscle invasive).

Individuals may suffer from one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Blood in the urine (Hematuria)
  • In most instances, blood in the urine is the first sign of Bladder Cancer.
  • In general, individuals with hematuria can have urine that ranges in color from a very pale, yellow-red to a dark red.
  • Painful urination (Dysuria)
  • Frequent urination
  • Urgency to urinate

Prostate Cancer

The precise cause of prostate cancer is not known. Prostate cancer is a disease where cells of the prostate become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming tumors. The prostate is about the size of a walnut and lies just behind the urinary bladder. A tumor in the prostate interferes with proper control of the bladder and normal sexual functioning. Often the first symptom of prostate cancer is difficulty in urinating. However, because a very common, non-cancerous condition of the prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also causes the same problem, difficulty in urination is not necessarily due to cancer. Prostate Cancer is the most common cancer in men. It is recommended that all men over the age of 50 have a yearly rectal exam and PSA test. Patients with a family history of prostate cancer and those of African descent should begin screening at age 40.

Symptoms could include:

  • Urinary Incontinence or Retention
  • Frequent Urination
  • Urinary Hesitancy, Slowing of Urinary Stream or Poor Stream of Urine
  • Dribbling of Urine
  • Night Time Urination
  • Pain In Urethra &/or Painful Urination
  • Pain
  • Back Pain
  • Rectal Pain
  • Decreased Libido
  • Blood In Urine
  • Painful Ejaculation
  • Pain With Bowel Movement
  • Incomplete Emptying of Bladder
  • Urine Color Abnormal
  • Burning Pain After Urination

Testicular Cancer

There is no known cause of Testicular cancer. It develops in the testicles (testes), the male reproductive glands. The testicles are located in the membranous pouch below the penis (scrotum) and are suspended from the body by the spermatic cord. They produce male reproductive cells (sperm) and testosterone. Testicular cancer is treated successfully in more than 95% of cases. Incidence of testicular cancer is rising. The disease is most prevalent in men between the ages of 18 and 32.

Symptoms could include:

  • Abdominal Pain
  • Groin Pain, Groin swelling or Groin Lump
  • Breast Enlargement in Men
  • Heavy Feeling In The Testicles, Testicular Lump or Tender Testes
  • Pain
  • Back Pain
  • Decreased Libido
  • Swelling of Scrotum or Pain in scrotum
  • Scrotal mass